Each person has different kinds of traits and ways of life. All people vary in putting up their personalities, experiencing their lives, fulfilling their duties acting toward various situations and dealing with their problems and challenges because of things and people with whom they come into contact in their daily lives.
Now that, they are in possession of distinct sorts of lifestyle they also have different techniques of learning. However, individuals act according to their own learning ways there are some certain approaches to taking in information and basic abilities during process of education which are accepted universally such as behaviorism, cognitivism, constructivism etc. First of all, behaviorism consist of concepts like peopleвs manner are schemed or planned in advance rather than by chance and there is a plan in all living and nonliving thingsв process of life. There are some psychologists and scientists who are in favor of this learning theory.
B. Watson was the most significant founder of this type of theory. Watson backed up the idea of that human behaviors are resulted from interaction between stimuli and response. In addition, he grounded his claim on Russian psychologist Ivan Parlov experiment. The experiment is about a dog. Ivan Parlov gave food to dog at same time everyday. After a while, he found out that when food time approach, the dog start to salivated. Ivan Pavlov drew a conclusion from this experiment. The deduction was that all learning procedures are associated with stimulus-response model.
B. F. Skinner is also one of the backbones of this discipline and he is the most commonly recognized promoter of its. Even though behaviorists say peopleвs behaviors are determined by environmental factors in great part Secondly, Gestalt theory supports a different learning method which is criticism of behaviorism. Most commonly known practitioners of this idea are Kohler and Wertheimer. Gestalt effect refers to the form-forming capability of our senses, particularly with respect to the visual recognition of figures and whole forms instead of just a collection of simple lines and curves. вв1 While behaviorists give more importance for parts of a whole, Gestaltist say we should take something as a whole without splitting it.
On this point they are vice versa. Thirdly, constructivism mostly deals with strategies of learning rather than learning behavior. The most famous promoters of this concept are Vygotsky and Bruner. Supporters of this conception endorse student-centered learning instead of teacher-centered learning. According to constructivists students should not merely depend on their instructors in terms of gaining knowledge, fundamental skills and developing themselves. It will be enough for teachers to give main clues to their pupils and leave rest of the procedure for students to complete on their own. Lastly, cognitivism mainly focuses on deeds and tactics of obtaining information and fundamental skills. The most prominent practitioner of this discipline is Piagot.
Cognitive psychologists concentrate on the study of the mental methods students use while brainstorming and recalling. There are some resemblances between behaviorist and cognitivist theories. вв Like behaviorists, they engage more in the hypotheico-deductive scientific inquiry. The primary focus of the research study in cognitive psychology emphasizes the internal processes inferred through the observation of behavior. However, the focus on the mental structures and processes in cognitive psychology does not explicitly indicate its philosophical position. вв2 In conclusion, there are different types of learning styles.
Their effectiveness can change person to person, time to time or place to place. Because all people have distinct properties and they can behave in different ways under different circumstances. Nevertheless, in my opinion Gestalt theory is the most influential and beneficial method for people to learn something properly and not to forget it forever, but this is my own thinking. As a result, students can select any theory which is the most suitable for them.